print finishing



A

Accordion fold
A term for two or more parallel folds that result in a sheet that opens like an accordion
Against the grain
Perpendicular to the direction of the paper grain
Aliasing
A defect which occurs when a graphic file does not have enough resolution to reproduce image detail and causes visible jagged lines along the edges
Anti-aliasing
Technique of filling the edges of an object with pixels to eliminate jagged lines and make it appear smoother
Aqueous Coating
A fast-drying, water-based coating that is applied after printing that gives a glossy finish and protects the print’s surface.
Artwork
In printing, this is the original copy which includes all text, graphics, photos and illustrations

B

Back up (when printing)
To print the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side
Bind
To fasten sheets or sections into brochures or booklets with the use of wire, thread, glue, staples, etc
Binding
The process by which sheets are fastened together which include cutting, trimming, collating, perforating, and folding to form the finished product
Bitmap
An image file format that refers to the rows and columns (map) of dots or pixels that form an image
Bitmap Images
Computerised image made up of a collection of dots or pixels; these images appear blocky when you zoom in; also known as raster images
Blanket
The thick rubber coated pad of a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to the sheet
Bleed
Printing that goes beyond the edge of the final trim size
Blind embossing
A technique in which a design is pressed into a sheet without ink or foil, creating a raised image
Bond paper
Durable and lightweight paper commonly used for letterheads and business stationery
Border
Margin or line between the image area and the edge of the paper
Brightness
The brilliance or reflective quality of paper affecting contrast in printing
Bulk
The thickness of paper relative to its weight

C

Caliper
Measurement of paper thickness expressed in thousandths of an inch
Cast coated
A type of coated paper with a high gloss enamel finish
Chrome
Colour transparency
Coated paper
Paper with a thin surface coating of clay that produces a smooth finish
Collate
A finishing term for arranging pages or sheets in correct order before binding
Colour Balance
Refers to the proper ratio of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink during printing to keep colour consistency and produce the desired colour of an image
Colour bar
Strips of colour used as a tool to check colour accuracy and density
Colour correction
Methods of adjusting and improving colour qualities such as colour balance, contrast, etc
Colour filter
Filters used in colour separation
Colour key
A printer’s proof made from 4 acetate or transparent films of various colours, one sheet per process colour, which when combined simulates the finished product
Colour matching system
Colour chart in an electronic system used to compare, measure or mix colours
Colour separations
Preparing a full-colour image for printing by separating it into the four basic process colours: cyan, magenta, yellow and black
Colour Sequence
The order in which the four-colour process inks are printed on the press
Comb bind
A method of binding by inserting a plastic comb through holes along the side or edge of a stack of pages
Computer-to-Plate (CTP)
A technology that enables transfer of digital data directly to a metal plate for printing, eliminating the use of conventional films
Continuous-tone copy
Illustrations and photographs that have a range of shades
Contrast
The range of difference between the darkest and lightest areas in an image
Copy
Any material (text or artwork) to be used in printing a piece
Cover paper
A heavyweight paper commonly used for covers of books, brochures, catalogues and folders
Creep
Creep is the shifting position of the page in a saddle-stitched bind. Creep moves the inside pages away from the spine.
Crop
To cut off sides or portions of an image
Crop marks
Lines at the edges of a sheet that show where the page will be trimmed
Crossover
Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication
Cure
The process of drying inks or coatings through chemical processes to develop strong adhesion
Cyan
Shade of blue; One of four basic ink colours used in 4 colour printing process (CMYK)

D

Deboss
To press an image below the surface of paper
Densitometer
An instrument used to measure the density of coloured ink to determine consistency
Density
The degree of darkness of an image
Die
Metal plate cut for impressing a design or image on paper
Die cutting
A process of cutting paper in a shape or design using metal dies
Direct Imaging
A technology that eliminates the use of film plates by directly transferring the image from digital files to the press plates using a laser
Direct Imaging Press (DI)
An offset press where the plate is imaged directly on the press with laser
Dot
The individual element of a halftones; also referred to as a “pixel”
Dot gain or spread
The spread of ink on paper; occurrence when dots print larger than they were on the film
Dots Per Inch (DPI)
A measurement of resolution of a screen image or printed image defined by the number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into one inch; The higher the DPI, the sharper the image
Double burn
Exposing a printing plate to multiple images
Draw-down
A method of applying a thin coating or ink on paper to roughly determine colour
Drop-out
Parts of artwork that are not reproduced
Dummy
A preliminary layout of a copy showing the position and general style made to resemble the finished product
Duotone
A halftone image made up of two colours
Duplexing
The ability of a press to print on both sides of a sheet of paper

E

EPS (Encapsulated Postscript File)
An Adobe graphic file format for high resolution images; it translates graphic and text into code that tells a printer to print in the highest resolution possible and also has low resolution view files for quick screen viewing.
Emboss
Technique of pressing an image into paper so that creating a raised image
Emulsion
Photosensitive sensitive coating on printing plates and film

F

Feeder
Section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing
Flood
To cover a page completely with ink or varnish
Flop
The backside of an image
Foil
A thin metal applied to paper used in foil stamping and foil embossing
Foil emboss
To foil stamp or emboss an image on paper using a die
Foil stamping
Pressing a design or image on paper without ink using a foil and heated metal die
Four colour process
The process of printing using the combination of four basic colour inks (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) to produce a range of colours and create a colour image
Four back Four (4/4) or Four over four
A print job with four colour printing on both sides of the paper
Four back One (4/1) or Four over one
A print job with four colour printing on the front side and one colour (usually black) on the back side
Four back Zero (4/0) or Four over zero
A print job with four colour printing on the front side and no printing on the back side
FSC Certified Paper
Forest Stewardship Council certified paper

G

Gang
Economical way of printing by printing multiple images on the same sheet using the maximum sheet size
Ghosting
A printing defect where a faint unwanted image appears on a page
Gloss
Shiny coating applied to paper
Grain
The direction in which the fibres of a paper lie
Graphic Design
The use of visual elements to express a message
Grayscale
An image made up of a range of shades of black and white
Grippers
The metal fingers on printing presses that hold the paper and controls it as it passes through the press

H

Halftone
Pattern of dots within a fixed grid to reproduce a continuous-tone image
Hard copy
A document or data printed on paper
Highlight
The lightest part in an image
House Sheet
Paper kept in stock by a printer

I

Image area
Portion of a page or paper that can be printed on
Imposition
Arranging printed pages correctly so they will fold in the proper sequence
Impression
The pressure of a printing press on paper; image caused by pressure of a press plate on paper
Ink fountain
The container on a printing press that hold the ink

K

Keyline
An outline drawing to show the exact size and position of an artwork

L

Laid finish
A pattern of parallel lines running across the grain, creating a ribbed and handmade effect
Line copy
High contrast copy made up of solids or lines which do not require a halftone screen; also called line art or line work
Lines per inch (LPI)
The number of lines of dots per inch in a halftone screen; the higher the LPI., the sharper the image
Lithography
A method of printing where plates are chemically treated so that the image area accepts ink and non-image areas repel ink.

M

Magenta
Also known as process red; one of the 4 basic ink colours in process colour printing; M in abbreviation CMYK
Mask
Blocking light from reaching parts of a printing plate, also called knockout
Matte
Dull non-glossy finish
Micrometer
Devise used to measure the thickness (caliper) of paper
Middle tones
The tones in a photograph between highlights and shadows; must be balanced for accurate reproduction
Moire
An undesirable screen pattern caused by incorrect screen angles

N

Negative
A film in which the white areas of the original image appear black and the black areas appear white

O

Offset Printing
A common printing process in which the image to be printed is transferred from a metal plate to a rubber blanket onto paper
Offsetting
Transfer of ink or impression from one page to the opposite page
Opacity
The property of paper that minimizes the show-through on a printed sheet
Outline halftone
A halftone image with the background removed to outline the main image
Overrun
Production of larger quantities than ordered

P

Page count
Total number of pages in a book or publication
Pantone Matching Systems (PMS)
The standard colour-matching system used by printers and graphic designers
Perfect Bind
A binding technique in which pages are collated into a single sheet and then glued together and attached to the cover with an adhesive
Perfecting press
A printing press that prints both sides of a sheet at the same time
Perforation
Process of making holes or a series of cuts to make tearing or folding easy
Pica
A printer’s measure of type; One pica is 1/6 of an inch
Plate
A flat sheet of metal on which an image is reproduced using a printing press
PostScript
A page description language developed by Adobe Systems that tells a printer how an image is to be printed
Process colours
The four basic colours used in printing to simulate full spectrum colour — Cyan (blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), black (process black)

R

Raster
To render an image, pixel by pixel, vertically and horizontally
Raster image
See bitmap image
Raster Image Processor (RIP)
A device that translates data into dots or pixels
Ream
A quantity of paper equivalent to 500 sheets
Resolution
Refers to the number of pixels an image expressed in pixels per inch (ppi) or dots per inch (dpi); the higher the number, the sharper the image
RGB
Refers to red, green, blue – the additive primary colours used for colour video display as on a computer screen
Rich Black
A darker and deeper black colour created by combining other ink colours with black ink. The values to create Rich Black is usually 60% Cyan & 100% Black. Or 40% Cyan, 30% Magenta, 30% Yellow, 100% Black. Never use Rich Black for small type below 20pt
Ruleup
A map or drawing showing how a printing job must be imposed with a specific press and sheet size; also called Press Layout

S

Saddle stitch
A method of binding using staples in the seam or spine of a book or booklet where it folds
Scanner
An instrument used to make colour separations; also an instrument to scan images or photos in desktop publishing
Score
A mark or crease pressed on paper to make folding easier
Scoring
The process of pressing a sheet of paper to create a groove or line for folding
Screen angles
The angles at which halftone screens are positioned to avoid unwanted patterns
Self-cover
The paper used as cover is the same as that used in the inside pages
Shadow
The darkest areas of a photograph or image
Side stitch
To bind by stapling sheets along one side of a sheet
Signature
Term for a printed sheet after folding
Specifications
A precise description of features of a print order such as paper stock and quantity
Spine
The back edge of a bound book or publication that connects the 2 covers
Split Run
Printing of a book or booklet that has copies bound in different ways
Spoilage
Planned paper waste — also known as make readies
Spot varnish
Varnishing a specific part of a sheet
Stamping
Pressing a design or image onto paper with a metal die
Step-and-repeat
Technique of repeatedly exposing the same image on the plate in different places
Stock
The paper or material to be printed on
Stripping
The process of positioning film negatives for plate making
Substrate
Any surface or material on which printing is done

T

Tagged Image File Format (.TIFF)
A standard graphic image file format often used for storing high resolution images that can easily handle up to 24 bits of photographic image colour
Tint
A mixture of a hue with white
Tissue overlay
A thin transparent paper placed over artwork for protection and may be used for marking printer instructions
Trapping
Printing of one ink over the other to prevent gaps from appearing
Trim marks
Marks on a printed sheet that show where to cut or trim the page
Trim size
The final size of a printed image after trimming
Typesetting
To arrange or layout artwork and text for printing

U

Uncoated
Paper with no treatment or coating on the surface
Under-run
Production of fewer copies than ordered by customer
Up
Printing multiple copies of the same on the same sheet — ie 2 up or 4 up
UV coating
Liquid glossy coating applied to paper’s surface and cured with ultraviolet light

V

Varnish
A clear liquid coating applied to printed sheet for protection and shine
Vector Images
Images made up of solids, lines and curves that can be scaled or edited without affecting image resolution

W

Waste
Planned spoilage
Watermark
A distinctive design created in paper during manufacturing that is visible when the paper is held up to the light
Web
The roll of printing paper used in web or rotary printing
Web press
A high speed printing press that print on a continuous roll of paper or web rather than on individual sheets
Wire O
A method of binding using double loops of wire through a hole
With the grain
Folding or feeding paper into the press parallel to the paper’s grain or fiber
Work and turn
Printing the second side of a sheet by turning the sheet over from the gripper to the tail utilising the same side guides and plate
Wove paper
A paper having a uniform unlined surface and a smooth finish